Health and medical homework help to discuss probability on 2012 National Health Interview Survey results

Suppose that a 2012 National Health Interview Survey gives the number of adults in the United States which gives the number of adults in the United States (reported in thousands) classified by their age group, and whether or not respondents have ever been tested for HIV. Here are the data:

Age Group


Never Tested

18–44 years



45–64 years



65–74 years



75 years and older






Case Assignment

  1. Discuss probability. What is its history? What is the theory of probability? How is it calculated? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using this technique?
  2. Identify and discuss the two major categories of probability interpretations, whose adherents possess conflicting views about the fundamental nature of probability.
  3. Based on this survey, what is the probability that a randomly selected American adult has never been tested? Show your work. Hint: using the data in the two total rows, this would be calculated as p (NT) /( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability.
  4. What proportion of 18- to 44-year-old Americans have never been tested for HIV? Hint: using the values in the 18–44 cells, this would be calculated as p (NT) / ( p (NT) + p (T)), where p is probability. Show your work.

Assignment Expectations

Use the information in the modular background readings as well as resources you find through ProQuest or other online sources. Please be sure to cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper. Submit the paper as a Word document through the link provided for the assignment.

Michelson, S. & Schofield, T. (2002). Chapter 2: Inference (pages 45-53). In: The Biostatistics Cookbook: The Most User-Friendly Guide for the Bio/Medical Scientist. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Available in Ebrary, accessed via Trident’s online library.

Additional Reading (Optional)

Davis, R. and Mukamal, K. (2006). Statistical Primer for Cardiovascular Research: Hypothesis testing. Retrieved from

McDonald, JH (2009). Basic concepts of hypothesis testing. Retrieved from

Johnson, L. (2008). Principles of Hypothesis Testing for Public Health. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from

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