Paraphrasing 2 Passages – 4-5 sentence each

Hello! I need 2 passages to be paraphrased into 4-5 original sentences!

Your goal is to SUMMARIZE – put things in your own words from
your understanding of the paragraph. Your goal is not to have one
big quote – so please use your own words and summarize the material
by paraphrasing.


No culture is, or has been, characterized by a permanently fixed set
of material objects, systems of organization, or even ideologies.
Cultures are essentially in a state of flux. Some changes are major
and pervasive. The transition from hunter-gatherers to sedentary
farmer, affected markedly every facet of the cultures experiencing
that change and the experiences of the people living in those
cultures. Profound, too, was the impact of the Industrial Revolution
and its associated urbanization on all the societies that it has
touched. However, many changes are so slight individually as to go
almost unnoticed at their inception, though cumulatively they may
substantially alter the affected culture. Think of how the culture
of the United States differs today from what you know it to have been
in 1940. Such cumulative changes occur because the cultural traits of
any group are not independent, they are clustered in a coherent and
integrated pattern. Change on a small scale can have wide
repercussions as associated traits accommodate to the adopted
adjustment. Change, both major and minor, within cultures, is
induced by innovation and diffusion. Innovation implies changes to a
culture that results from ideas created within the social group
itself. Diffusion is the process by which an idea or innovation is
transmitted from one individual or group to another.

Bjelland, Mark D. and Jerome D. Fellmann. 2013. Human
Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities
. 12th
edition. New York:McGraw Hill. p. 52.


When continental glaciers began their retreat some 11,000 years ago,
the activity and awareness spaces of Stone Age humans were limited.
As a result of pressures of numbers, need for food, changes in
climate, and other inducements, those spaces were collectively
enlarged to encompass most of the terrestrial world. Migration –
the permanent or planned long term relocation of residential place –
has been one of the enduring themes of human history. It has
contributed to the evolution of separate cultures, to the diffusion
of those cultures and their components by interchange and
communication, and to the frequently complex mix of peoples and
cultures found in different areas of the world. Indeed, it has been
a major force in shaping the world as it is today and continues to be
an important force in ongoing world change. Massive movements of
people within countries, across national borders, and between
continents have emerged as a pressing concern of recent decades. They
affect national economic structures, determine population density and
distribution patterns, alter traditional ethnic, linguistic, and
religious mixtures, and inflame national debates and international

Bjelland, Mark D. and Jerome D. Fellmann. 2013. Human
Geography: Landscapes of Human Activities
. 12th
edition. New York:McGraw Hill. p.78.

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