week 1 discussion


All organisms affect the evolution of the other organisms in their biological community. Flowering plants probably are the reason insects developed wings, and insects almost certainly are responsible for the development of showy flowers and sweet nectar because they would pollinate only those plants having these attributes. Human beings can also be considered “agents of selection” in the evolution of other species. For this week’s discussion, choose a particular species that humans have “caused” to evolve. Name the species and explain how humans have caused the evolution of the species.


name of the student Crystal Weber Dog evolutionDogs have been known as “Man’s best friend” for many generations, but dogs had their own beginning before humans. Evidence suggests that dogs split from their wolf ancestors approximately 27,000-40,000 years ago. Before the split, dogs were simply wolves. It is believed that domestication started as a slow process with no long-term intentions. Hunter-gatherers simply started to share lean meat with the wolves during the coldest of times. Brian Hare, director of the Duke University Canine Cognition center stated that it could have been the wolves that tamed themselves for their own benefit with hunter-gatherers, as many scientists called it “survival of the friendliest”.  However, humans took this friendship to the next level by keeping wolves as pets. These wolves were eventually bred with foxes, giving them a bit of a different look. Over a long period of time, these dogs started becoming traveling companions to men and women, when they traveled, they bred with other dogs. At first, there weren’t specific breeds of dogs like there are today. Back then, they were just dogs. Until men decided to certain attributes with other certain attributes to obtain desired results. These results were used to help the humans hunt, fish, and the dogs helped the day-to-day lives of the people.  Marshall, M. (2021, January 13). Humans may have domesticated dogs by accident by sharing excess meat. New Scientist. Retrieved February 8, 2023, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/2264329-humans-may-have-domesticated-dogs-by-accident-by-sharing-excess-meat/ Tan, E., & Tan, E. (2023, February 3). The story of canine domestication, and why it’s important to every human. Varsity Online. Retrieved February 8, 2023, from https://www.varsity.co.uk/science/20791


Manjola Elsman Week 1 DiscussionHumans have caused the evolution of bacteria, beginning with their discovery as infectious agents, sparking the search for the best preventative and therapeutic regimen to combat them ( Davies & Davies, 2010). There are many ways in which humans have influenced the lives of creatures, from domesticating them to breeding new species to destroying their habitat. These have all created many differences in the animal kingdom. Still, studies show that humans are also inducing wild animal evolution to adapt to the environment humans have created faster than ever before. One animal, in particular, has adapted very quickly to poaching. Elephants have long been hunted for their prized ivory tusks. In 1989 the international community passed a ban on ivory sales worldwide. Furthermore, it did not change matters for the elephants, whose tusks were still precious on the black market. It has been estimated that around 35,000 elephants are killed yearly for their ivory. It seemed there was no hope for the elephant, seeing that over five percent of the world’s elephants die annually. However, they have started to evolve to combat the extinction of their kind. The percentage of female elephants that have no tusks has risen from ten percent to forty percent in only twenty years. The cause of this happening is that elephants are now more likely to survive with no tusks, even though they cannot defend themselves from other elephants with tusks. That is an extraordinary rate for an animal to evolve. In some areas of Africa, up to 98 percent of the population has no tusks. Although it is sad to see that in a few decades, elephants may no longer have tusks due to the extreme poaching of their species, at least there is comfort in knowing that if they keep evolving at this rate, there will still be elephants.Additionally, the rapid movement of humans, animals, plants, water, and soil around the planet ensures bacteria and other microorganisms, once ecologically segregated, can move seamlessly through habitats across the globe. Many antibiotics, such as sulphonamides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones, are stable molecules that stay stable in water and persist in water and soil after an animal or human excretion. Biocides, found in healthcare antiseptics, disinfectants, and sterilizers used to disinfect farm equipment, also contain metals that increase resistance. The development of generations of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their distribution throughout the biosphere have caused an evolution in their species as a direct result of humans and selection pressures created byhumans.WC=413ReferenceDavies, J., & Davies, D. (2010). Origins and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance. Microbiology and       Molecular Biology Reviews, 74 (3), 417-433. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00016-10

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